The Artistic Way of Programming

12 years back, when I started my formal classes in computer science, the first thing I learnt was “data” means “information”. A few days after that, we started conventional programming, where code and data were treated separately. For example, only data can be passed as the functional arguments. It was difficult for me to digest that “code, which is also information, is not treated as data”. I strongly felt that this will increase complexity of softwares in the long run.

A system does three things – read, transform (processing data), write. In other words – the mathematics (the transform part), and the effect of that in real life (the read/write part). The data transformation is indeed a mathematical concept, and with the help of read and write we make the mathematics (the transform part) useful to the real world. Bringing the “transform” part fully inside mathematical domain has its own benefit of using mathematics without fear (possible errors) for the analysis of the system, making the system more tractable mathematically. The catch is to treat both the elements of transformations, data and functions, equally.

Initially, code used to be bigger than the data, so sending data over the wire was feasible. But with time, data becoming huge, sending code to systems over the wire becomes the need, resting the data on the systems intact. With big data, the need of the hour is to treat the code as data, so that the code can be taken as argument to another meta function on a system having huge data which expects an algorithm for transformations.

Roughly speaking, codes are algorithms, algorithms are mathematical functions, functions are in turn actually look-up tables, i.e. data. Hence with this principle, all codes or functions are data.This is exactly the cornerstone of the functional paradigm. The functional programming is programming with functions, they treat functions and data likewise. Another principle I love, to control complexity, rules should not be complex itself.

Thumb rules rewritten for the functional paradigm:

Read-write and transformations(algorithms) should be separate.
Use immutable variables. Discourage use of reassignment statements.
Discourage side-effects (input/output or changing any variable in-place), every function should ONLY return its expected result.
Use referentially transparent functions (sometimes it is called pure functions) with no side effects, i.e. if x = y, f(x) and f(y) should be same forever.
Unit testing is a must for each function.
One of the main design patterns should be followed is to use expressions instead of instructions, i.e. it should be declarative in nature. Discourage use of loops like for/while – use recursive statements as shown above to calculate sum. Tell computers what needs to be done, not how to do it – it reduces error, especially edge cases.
With the need to control the complexity of the system and the advance design, the design pattern for the functional composition can be made to follow some basic algebraic structures, which in turn becomes more robust.

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3 Affordable Cars for College Graduates and Young Students Living in Philly

Philadelphia, nicknamed Philly, is the fifth-most populous city of America. One of the main reasons of the city’s high population is the large number of students residing in Philly. It has the third-largest student concentration on the East Coast of America. It is home to more than 120,000 students who are enrolled in different universities around the city. There are more than 80 universities, colleges and schools in the region. Also, several young people are enrolled in the oldest university of America, University of Pennsylvania.

Buying a Car with a Limited Budget

As a student studying in Philadelphia, you must think that you should not spend your money on luxurious items. But, it doesn’t mean that you cannot buy a car to make your daily commute comfortable. Also, do not think that you will end up with an old, dilapidated car only. It is a fact that your limited budget will not permit you to buy a luxurious brand new car. But, if you research thoroughly, you will find several new car models that will fit your lifestyle and budget easily. Here are a few affordable car models that a student should consider buying in Philly:

· Nissan Versa

If you want to invest money in a good, reliable and sturdy car, you can consider buying Nissan’s Versa Sedan car. It is ranked as one of the cheapest cars in Philly. Nissan ensures that you become a proud new car owner for around $10,000. It means you can buy a car with the help of your limited budget. It is a great bargain because several new cars are priced around $30,000. The cheapest Versa S version of the car has a powerful engine with 109 horsepower. Its unique halogen headlights provide maximum visibility at night and make sure that you reach home safe.

Before visiting a dealership in Philly, make sure that you register as a Nissan College Grad on the company’s official website. Once you finish the registration process, print the Nissan College Grad Certificate and show it to the dealer for obtaining discounts.

· Hyundai Accent

Critics consider the car as a perennial best seller. You can buy the new Hyundai Accent for $14,745. However, you will be able to reduce the price of the car with the help of Hyundai College Grad Program. The auto manufacturer offers a student incentive program to college graduates and young students of Philly. Hyundai offers a $400 bonus for buying a car in Philly. The dealer will consider the bonus as a part of the down payment amount for buying the car.

Hyundai Accent will quench your thirst for a powerful car because it has a 137 horsepower, 1.6 liter four-cylinder engine. Also, you can make a choice between six-speed manual and six-speed automatic transmissions. The car is a joyful ride for the young generation because it provides a great audio system with six speakers, tilt-steering wheels, dual vanity mirrors and exterior temperature display.

· Kia Rio

Kia Rio is a favorite car among the young generation of America. It is because it offers spacious cabin space and cheaper maintenance costs. The 2017 model was unveiled at the 2016 Paris Auto Show. And, since then, it has captured the attention of car lovers across America. The South Korean manufacturer has packed several features for the tech-savvy students of Philly. It provides rear-camera display to help you park properly at your college. Also, its connection-on-command service UVO will provide you with driving directions and access your favorite apps to help you improve your driving skills. Similar to Hyundai, Kia Motors also offers a student incentive program in Philly. It provides a $400 discount along with other incentives to college graduates and young students.

Buying a new car signifies your entry to adult life. It is an important decision that will have immense consequences on your financial situation. So, do not make a hasty decision. Spend time in finding a car model that suits you. Do not forget to consider different incentive programs that auto manufacturers offer to college graduates and young students of Philly. It will make the car buying process affordable for you.

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Stay Healthy and Wealthy

When you make those New Year’s resolutions, you’re thinking about fresh starts and the year ahead. What you might not realize is that some resolutions also could save money. Here are some popular resolutions that could help get you and your finances in shape in 2017.

Quit smoking: You can save money by stopping a pack-a-day habit, which can cost between $1,825 and $3,650 per year, depending on the cost of cigarettes in your area. Nationally, a pack-a-day smoker is going to spend an average of $2,000 annually on cigarette costs.

Set up and stick to a realistic budget: If you want to resolve to stick to a budget in 2017, you must start with a realistic plan. People tend to make financial resolutions the same way they do a weight loss plan. If you start with lofty goals they will be unachievable within a month. List your priorities for spending rather than restricting your spending. Focus on necessary expenses then include a certain amount for retirement savings. Then with the remaining money you have each month, set aside a little for enjoyment. It’s critical you have rewards in your budget.

Exercise regularly: You’ll save money in several ways with regular exercise. On average, Americans are spending $7,800 annually on health care, according to the National Association of Health Underwriters. But exercise brings real savings. “If people are eating right and exercising three times a week for 20 minutes a day, they see prescription costs decrease by 70 percent and medical costs decrease by 30 percent,” says Ric Edelman of Edelman Financial Services. Stop spending money recklessly: One of the best ways to stop spending your money recklessly is to track where it is going each month. Check with your credit union and download their free mobile budgeting app that shows expenditures by category so you can monitor your spending. A great way to get your spending under control is quit trying to “keep up with the Joneses”. If you want to fix your bad spending habits in 2017 start hanging out with other spendthrifts because you will likely become one yourself.

Eat healthier: A healthy eating plan can be as — or more — economical than fast food. It’s a total myth that eating healthy is expensive. Buy smaller but leaner cuts of meat, eat protein-rich beans and buy produce in season when it’s freshest and least expensive. A smaller amount of a leaner cut can slice your food bill and your bad cholesterol.

Build an emergency fund: Nothing takes the stress out of financial situation like spare cash. If you are among the millions of Americans that don’t have enough money set aside to cover unexpected expenses or emergencies, then you should resolve to build one in 2017. Experts recommend putting enough money in a savings account to cover six months’ worth of expenses in case of unexpected emergencies like job loss, maternity leave or medical issues. You can always apply a small amount of your paycheck towards this account, so you make sure it is hidden from you.

Pay off high-interest debt: Paying down credit card debt is one of the most popular short-term goals in 2017. Try focusing on paying off your high-interest credit card debt before other debts because it is more expensive. And, it you are motivated by seeing those results first hand, start by paying off your card with the lowest balance first so you can feel that sense of accomplishment. Create your estate plan: An important 2017 resolution would be to tie up any financial loose ends for your loved ones so they aren’t left trying to pick up the pieces. Make sure you have a will or trust that designates who’s in control of your assets. You certainly don’t want the state court system to make that decision for you. Don’t forget to designate a guardian for your children, and someone who will make financial and healthcare decisions for you if you are unable to do so.

Develop common financial goals with your partner: Many times finances are the biggest source of conflict between couples. It’s important that couples sit down and create a financial plan. It doesn’t usually work to try and manage their finances separately.

Any of these resolutions can help improve your financial security in 2017. I suggest tackling one financial tip each month so you don’t get overwhelmed. Then as you get accustomed to the new approach to spending and saving, add another. By the time 2017 starts dwindling toward 2018, you will find you’ve made progress on achieving your financial goals.

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How to Get What You Want in 2017

It is almost 2017 and time to start thinking about those New Year’s resolutions but the problem with New Year’s resolutions is that so few people actually achieve them. Why is this and what can you do to make sure you actually get what you want in 2017?

1. Write Down Your New Year’s Resolutions and Set SMART goals

The first step towards achieving what you want is to actually write it down and turn resolutions into goals. An unwritten resolution is quickly forgotten and unless you have some written, specific goals chances are you are just going to be wandering. SMART goals are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time-bound. In other words, say exactly what you want to achieve, by when and have ways of measuring how you are getting along. 2. Develop Habits and Consistency

Another problem that often occurs with New Year’s resolutions is that people do not form habits and develop consistency in those actions that are going to get them there. For instance, if you want to lose weight, it needs to become a habit to exercise and eat healthy foods. They say it takes 21 days to develop a habit but it is actually better to consistently stick to it for 63 days to ensure that the habit is well entrenched into your lifestyle before taking any breaks. Not all habits need to be done every day but you do need to be consistent in doing those things that will get you towards your goal.

3. Track and Measure

Set smaller goals and ways of measuring how you are making progress towards your major goal and then track these. Start by tracking those habits that it will take to get you there – how many times have you exercised this week for example. As you are tracking you will see how even the small steps count and will be more motivated to keep moving towards your major goal.

4. Stay Positive

Your mindset has a huge role to play in whether you are going to achieve your goals or not. Always try to remain positive and think positively. Focus on what it is you want but don’t beat yourself up over setbacks or slip ups, you will get times where things don’t go perfectly or you may have a setback but just keep going and you will get there.

Instead of just setting some New Year’s Resolutions for this next year why not turn them into actionable goals, develop habits that will help you achieve them and track these consistently. Keep positive and all the best for achieving whatever it is you want to achieve in 2017.

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Mobile Content Market Trends and Opportunities

The mobile content market covers many forms of media such as music, text, pictures, videos, etc. These media forms can be accessed using a mobile device which can be a smartphone or tablet handheld device. Devices such as iPhone, iPad, and Android devices have transformed the way consumer access content.

Mobile Content Market Drivers and Opportunities

The demand for mobile content is growing rapidly. Various factors attribute to the growth of this market.

Market Drivers

Rapidly increasing disposable incomes, innovative products and technologies, and mobile devices with advanced features tend to boost the growth of this market. Decreasing prices with the competitor’s product with increasing mobile bandwidth and speed has also supported the growth of the mobile phone content industry.

A market intelligence firm has stated that the global and the U.S. mobile phone content market was worth $6.5 billion in 2011. It is anticipated to reach a total value of $18.6 billion in 2017, with a CAGR of 19% during the forecast period of 2011 to 2017. On the other hand, factors such as decreasing market share of U.S. sales of ringtones along with distribution and marketing challenges hamper the growth of this market. However, the industry has many opportunities which will increase the revenue shares of the market.

Joint ventures between publishers and marketers and the role of devices and network in the mobile content industry will provide further opportunities for key players in this market. In addition, trends such as growth of social networking and availability of multiple options for substitute products in mobile content industry will support the growth of the market. Key players also have untapped opportunities in the sector of free and fee-based mobile phone content services.

Segmentation of the Mobile Content Industry

The global market for this report is segmented in two major parts which are the revenue-generated and user-type. These two segments are further divided into mobile games, mobile music, and mobile video.

Dominant Mobile Games Sector

The same market intelligence company has stated that the mobile games sector is expected to be the largest segment in the industry and reach a value of $11.4 billion by the end of 2017. Mobile games sector was the largest market sector in 2011 with a revenue share of 53.3%. It is predicted that this segment will further solidify its position in the overall market with a 61.7% market share by the end of 2017. The mobile games market worldwide was worth $3.5 billion in 2011 and will amount to $11.4 billion in 2017 with a 21.9% CAGR during the forecast period.

U.S., the Dominant Regional Sector

According to geography, the global mobile device market is segmented into U.S., Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World. The U.S. market for mobile content stood out as the largest regional market with an impressive revenue share of 30.3% in 2011. Faster adoption of mobile content in U.S. will considerably increase the market share to 41% by the end of 2017.

Mobile Content Marketing Trends

It is predicted by market analysts, that in the coming few years the mobile market’s revenue will double than the current figures within a year.

Consumer TrendsConsumers while buying mobile device content tend to compare content features, smart devices, and innovative technologies in the market. This factor tends to impact the mobile content industry greatly. The demand for mobile content will continue to grow in future as more mobile devices arrive every month on the market.

Mobile Optimized Sites Vs. Apps

In addition, the competition is growing between mobile optimized sites versus mobile-native content. This trend is one of the biggest struggles for mobile content provides whether to invest in mobile optimized sites or to invest in mobile-native content like apps.

According to Forbes, one of the key components to monetizing the mobile content is by selling apps. However, selling apps for two dollars a piece is not the only way to make apps profitable. Selling ads is one of the way companies can make profit.

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